Disclaimer 9. Varieties for animal feed have wider genetic background and their ratios of Indica and Japonica vary from one variety to another. Various types of proteinase inhibitors such as potato protease inhibitors II, cowpea trypsin inhibitors(CpTi), etc. They require several watering at the critical stages of growth and flowering. Therefore, the results of intergeneric crosses are not encouraging (Krishnamurthy et al., 1989, Madhusoodanan et al., 1990). Potentially, pests may reduce the yield of wheat by more than 50% and that of cotton more than 80%. A few fruits have been obtained in the cross involving Alpinia neutans; in other crosses no seeds were set (Parameswar, 1997). One of the important fac­tors which contributed to the success of new seeds in the states of Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh is the elaborate irrigation infrastructure in the form of canals, tube wells and pumping sets. Consequently, the HYV in such areas either could not be diffused or they are not performing satisfactorily. Content Filtrations 6. The highest β-carotene content reached 1.6 μg per g in rice grains. The lodging of crop re­duces the yield per unit area. In the absence of these facilities a lot of produce may go as a waste. This means that when fertilizers are supplied to high yielding varieties their yield increases substantially. Newer approaches are needed to meet the great increase in food production necessitated by population growth in … Transgenic rice plants with Bt gene have proven to be highly resistant to all lepidopterans, including stem borers such as yellow stem borer, striped stem borer and pink stem borer, and rice leaf folders in field trials. Already, 16 PAU recommended high yield varieties are being sown in Punjab, which includes PAU developed varsities (both long and short duration) like PMH-1, PMH -2, PMH 11, Parkash-1. Crop pests include weeds, insects, pathogens, and rodents. These dwarf varieties give much higher yields per unit area. The other inputs like chemical fertilizers and plant pro­tection chemicals can enhance the yield further. In the case of rice, inadequacy of moisture in the primordial initiation (flowering, milk­ing and grain forming stages) can reduce production to the extent of 50 per cent. Adoption of new needs and intensification of agri­culture in the subtropical countries like India (characterized with er­ratic monsoon) are not possible unless adequate irrigation facilities are available. The health and well-being of the world’s growing population are largely dependent on the ability of the agricultural industry to raise high yielding food and fiber crops. Content Guidelines 2. You might also want to think about placing a few onions near or around your cucumber plants as studies show that not only will onions keep soil bacteria and insects away, but they increase the cucumber plants overall yield. In fact, in the absence of controlled irrigation chemical fertilizers can­not be applied with confidence and many a times their application af­fects the crop adversely, particularly if the soil is not sufficiently moist. Apart from controlling pest populations, they have posed new challenges. They affect crop productivity by their higher yield potentials, resistance against insect pest and diseases under different climatic conditions. The Jat farmers who came to India from Pakistan in 1947 were found more industrious and superior in techniques of cultivation in comparison to the other farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Similarly, through the RNAi technique, two ripening-specific ethylene-induced N-glycoprotein modifying enzymes, α-mannosidase (α-Man) and β-D-N-acetylhexosaminidase (β-Hex), were targeted and the shelf-life of tomato was enhanced by ≈2–2.5-fold with firmer fruits. New crop varieties tolerate disease better, are better adapted to local conditions, and generally produce higher yields. © 2003-2012 Princeton University, Farlex Inc. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Therefore, a search continues for new nonconventional weed control methods aimed at utilization of biological weed control approaches. As a matter of fact, in many cases, man behind the machine becomes more important than the machine itself. Irrigation is the most important input required for the successful cul­tivation of HYV. Several insecticidal Bt genes have been transformed into various types of rice, and all showed great potential for controlling the most important insect pests in rice. Conventionally, weeds are controlled using manual, mechanical, and chemical methods (Chauvel et al., 2012). The variations in the income and dedication of the farmer to his oc­cupation are thus the major determinants in the fast or slow adoption of new innovations in agriculture. Even in the years of droughts (1987-88 and 1988-89), the farmers could harvest very good crops of paddy with the help of canal and tube well irrigation. Any slackness in the work of agricultural machinery may make the agriculture a less profitable pursuit. Raising of three and four crops from the same field in one year is possible only if modern tech­nology is available to the farmer. The lifestyle of the farmers and their aspirations for better stand­ard of living also determine their efficiency. In order to get a satisfactory agricultural return, the farmer should be in a posi­tion to arrange the costly inputs on time for which sufficient surplus capital should be available. The high yield varieties of crops give better response to fertilizers. In the initial years of the Green Revolution (1968-70), in the states of Punjab and Haryana, the crop of wheat was largely damaged in the threshing grounds owing to the untimely rainfalls in the months of April and May. These varieties, as stated at the outset, require elaborate arrange­ments of canal and tube well irrigation. It supplies the mechanical power to tube wells, pumping sets, threshers, crushers, grinders and chaff cutters. Werner Mühlbauer, Joachim Müller, in Drying Atlas, 2020, Cultivation of high-yielding varieties with uniform ripening characteristics. The national average of NPK consump­tion is 75 kg per hectare while in Punjab and Haryana the average consumption of chemical fertilizers in about 170 kg and 110 kg per hectare respectively. It is a potent insecticide and very much toxic to lepidopterans (Cohen et al., 2000), dipterans (Andrews et al., 1987), and coleopterans (Herrnstadt et al., 1986). Buy varieties that say they are compact or “bush” varieties. HYV are water thirsty. They should advance loans to the farmers at a reasonable rate of interest. The progressive and enterprising farmers have largely im­proved their standard of living by their industry, while the lethargic and orthodox cultivators could not adopt the new technology suc­cessfully and many of them are still in the grip of poverty and under­nourishment. In the tra­dition bound Indian society, the efficiency of extension machinery determines largely the efficiency of the producers. The timings of irrigation and the quantity of water supplied are decisive for the performance of the crop. In other words, in all societies, there are rational, economic farmers and irrational tradition bound farmers. Tasawar Abbas, ... Robert J. Kremer, in Advances in Agronomy, 2018. High Yielding Varieties Seeds are undoubtedly land substituting, water economizing, more la­bour using, and employment generating innovation; nevertheless, they are very delicate and sensitive and therefore require a great deal of care if a successful harvest is to be obtained. Crop genotypes play a dominant role in crop production systems. Proteinase inhibitors have been found very effective in controlling the growth and development of many insects by inactivating serine proteinase enzymes of the insect (Larry and Richard, 2002). high-yield - yielding a large amount of agricultural or industrial production. There is winter and spring varieties available. There should, therefore, be a perfect understanding and coordination between farm­ers, extension agents, farm supervisors, researchers and agricultural scientists. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Cultivation of perishable crops like vegetables, fruits and dairy products can also be done efficiently and profitably if elaborate transport, marketing and storage facilities are available. That's a lot of mouths to feed! The yield potential of these varieties was greater in the temperate regions of Asia and in the dry season in the monsoon region than in the humid tropics, because of the longer hours of sunshine and hence the greater potential photosynthesis available to the plant. The cost of these losses amounts to Rs. As discussed more thoroughly in Section 7.1, most stability measures relate to either of two contrasting concepts of stability: “static” (Type 1) and “dynamic” (Type 2) (Becker and Léon, 1988; Lin et al. soil moisture requirements during the various stages of growth of crop cannot be controlled. Apart from efficient transport and infrastructural facilities, mod­ern flour mills and rice husking factories need to be located at appro­priate location. Evaluate varieties for yield consistency from location to location and year to year to ensure for robust, high performance. A combination of very high transgene expression and improved protein stability resulted in mortality of even Bt-resistant insects (Kota et al., 1999). The recom­mended dose of chemical fertilizer for the new seeds of wheat and rice in terms of NPK in 90-45-45 kg per hectare. The first Bt toxin gene was cloned in 1981 (Schnepf and Whiteley, 1981; Jain et al., 2007) and a field trial of transgenic tobacco expressing Bt toxin was performed in 1986. Therefore, pest management is an important component of crop production since its inception (Oerke, 2006). To supply the prescribed doses of chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides introduction of foreign genes into rice disturbance! Remarkable transformation generally out of the field also becomes conducive for the successful cultivation of HYV watering the! 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